After the doctorate
The phase following the completion of a doctorate is subject to strict field-specific characteristics. A key consideration in this phase for all post-doctoral students is to increase their scientific independence and create the conditions to raise the considerable funds necessary for themselves or their individual projects.
In some disciplines, the focus is on the post-doctoral qualification, i.e. the authorization to teach in a given field obtained by submitting a major scientific paper, referred to as the "habilitation". In many academic fields, it is not the "habilitation" which serves as proof of scientific independence and experience but rather development through projects managed independently accompanied by successful publication and the acquisition of external funding.
During the post-doc phase, it is essential to develop a good network by traveling in order to find strong partners for personal research projects. This creates the preconditions favorable to acquiring competitive funds, for example. Such success contributes to obtaining a permanent position (e.g. a professorship) later in the course of research career.